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Buy Silicon Wafers Online at WaferPro
At WaferPro, we have the largest selections of silicon wafers and other semiconductor wafers you can choose from and buy them online. If you are looking for silicon wafers for sale for your electronics or semiconductor manufacturing business, you have come to the right page. But with so many wafer specifications to choose from, how do you decide what type of wafer to buy and from which supplier? This comprehensive guide will walk you through the key factors to consider when buying silicon wafers online or other semiconductor wafers for research, prototyping, R&D, or production.
Overview of WaferPro
Before jumping into the factors for buying wafers, let us first provide a quick overview of WaferPro as your wafer purchase source.
As a leading wafer manufacturer and supplier for over 8 years, our experienced team provides exceptional customer service and quality assurance you can count on. Some key facts about us:
- Broad range of wafer sizes, orientations, types and grades in stock.
- State-of-the-art manufacturing facilities and equipment.
- Rigorous quality control at every process step.
- Fast shipping, short lead times and competitive pricing.
- Outstanding technical support team to assist with specifications.
We invite you to browse our online catalog filtering on any wafer specifications important for your application needs. Please contact our team with any questions – we are happy to provide guidance to ensure you purchase the optimal silicon wafer.
Types of Silicon and Glass Wafers
for Sale at WaferPro
- Czochralski (CZ) grown single crystal ingots.
- Most common method for producing monocrystalline silicon.
- Lower cost than float zone with high quality.
- Float zone (FZ) monocrystalline growth.
- Ultra high purity, high resistivity and low defect wafers.
- For specialized semiconductor devices.
- Insulating silicon dioxide layer with thin silicon device layer.
- Provides superior isolation for high performance ICs.
- Specialized niche wafer – discuss SOI layer specs with our team
Silicon Thermal Oxide Wafers
- Silicon wafer oxidized to form controlled SiO2 layer.
- For microchip fabrication process development.
- Customizable oxide thickness from 30Å to 5000Å+.
Silicon Nitride Wafers
- LPCVD or PECVD silicon nitride coating.
- Excellent dielectric isolation.
- Customizable nitride film thickness.
Fused Silica and Fused Quartz Wafers
- Made of amorphous glass-like SiO2
- Extremely low thermal expansion coefficient
- For optics, biotech and specialized applications
Borofloat 33 Glass Wafers
- Borosilicate glass wafers
- High chemical durability
- Contact us about additional glass wafer needs
10 Key Factors to Consider When You
Buy Silicon Wafers Online
Now let’s explore those factors for you to consider when buying wafers online for electronics or semiconductor projects.
Factor # 1
The first major factor is selecting the appropriate wafer size (diameter) for your application or process tools:
- Options range from 2 inch wafers to large 300mm full-scale wafers.
- Larger wafers sizes allow more dies per wafer leading to lower costs.
- Smaller pieces may be preferred for prototyping, R&D, small production runs.
- Match wafer size to your facility’s process tools and handling capability.
We supply the full range of industry-standard sizes:
- 300mm (12 inches – full scale wafers)
- 200mm (8 inches – very common)
- 150mm (6 inches)
- 125mm (5 inches)
- 100mm (4 inches)
- 76.2mm (3 inches)
- 50.8mm (2 inches)
Carefully consider if you require full virgin test grade wafers vs lower cost reclaimed or reused wafers suitable for lab experiments.
Browse our online catalog by wafer size to see pricing and in-stock items. Feel free to contact our team for guidance on the optimal diameter for your needs.
Factor # 2
The next key consideration is selecting the wafer thickness:
- Thickness ranges from ultra-thin 20um to thick 3000um wafers
- Thinner wafers allow improved heat transfer and are often used for MEMS devices
- Thick wafers provide better mechanical strength and are widely used for power devices
- Ultra-thin wafers under 200um may require specialized handling to prevent breakage
Here are common industry standard thicknesses we supply:
- 10-100um – Ultra-thin
- 100-800um – Standard for integrated circuits (ICs) and power devices
- 800+um – Special order extra thick wafers
Consider the tradeoffs between wafer thickness and your application constraints like maximum process temperatures and wafer strength required.
Browse our online catalog by thickness range to explore in-stock items fitting your thickness needs.
Factor # 3
In addition to physical size specifications, selecting the wafer type meaning the material it is composed of is key:
- Most common is Silicon – extremely pure crystalline Si – for semiconductor devices
- Other options like FZ, SOI, Thermal Oxide, Silicon Nitride, Fused Silica, Fused Quartz, or Borofloat Glass for specialized applications
As a high purity silicon wafer specialist our focus is providing:
- Monocrystalline silicon – extremely uniform crystalline structure
- Reclaimed test and production silicon wafers
For this buying guide, we will focus specifically on purchasing silicon wafers, by far the most widely used for electronics and semiconductors.
Factor # 4
Crystalline orientation is another key differentiator of silicon wafers:
- Defines the plane aligned with surface of wafer and directionality of silicon lattice
- Most common orientation by far is <100> where the wafer flat is aligned to the  plane
- <111> used for specialized applications along with <110>
- Microchip layout and design rules must match
- Wafer sawing, polishing, shaping and final surface quality
- Oxide quality, charge carrier mobility and electronic performance
We stock the standard orientations:
- <100> orientation
- <111> orientation
- <110> orientation
Please contact our technical sales team to discuss special order wafers.
Factor # 5
Doping Type and Resistivity
A key differentiator of silicon wafers is the doping type (N or P) and more importantly the resistivity specification:
- Doping adds trace amounts of elemental impurities to alter electrical conductivity
- N-type uses group V elements (phosphorus, arsenic or antimony)
- P-type uses group III elements (boron)
- Resistivity in Ohm-cm specifies conductivity – lower is more conductive
Here are common silicon wafer resistivity ranges:
- 0.001-0.005 Ohm-cm – Heavy doping – electrically conductive
- 0.005-0.02 Ohm-cm – Moderate doping
- 0.1-100 Ohm-cm – Light doping – semi-insulating
- 1000 Ohm-cm – Intrinsic (undoped) – highly insulating
Choosing the target resistivity range depends key factors:
- Device type being fabricated and electrical performance constraints
- Isolation requirements between devices
- Tradeoffs on accessibility for ion implantation
Browse our catalog filtered by resistivity specification to match your target conductivity needs.
And feel free to discuss with our team the right guidance on intrinsic vs N vs P type and resistivity selection for your application.
Factor # 6
Test, Prime or Reclaimed
Silicon wafers fall into 3 major quality grades:
- Test grade:
- Brand new virgin polished wafers meeting semiconductor prime grade specs
- Except contains some added material to make affordable for R&D
- Hence allows full process testing without cost of prime wafers
- Prime grade:
- Virgin polished wafers meeting stringent semiconductor manufacturing requirements
- Extremely low defects – usually <0.3 defects/cm2 and particles
- Used for production microchip fabrication
- Reclaimed grade:
- Used production or test wafers that have been reclaimed
- Mechanically backside ground and sometimes re-polished
- May have existing devices, implants, films or patterns on surface
- Cost effective for lab experiments or pilot production
Understand the tradeoffs between cost and quality for these silicon wafer grades:
|Very good for R&D. Wider spec ranges.
|Excellent quality – stringent microchip manufacturing requirements
|Good for lab use. Reused wafers so may have existing features
Browse our grade filtered catalog listings to explore test/prime/reclaimed options meeting your project budget and quality needs.
Factor # 7
The wafer surface finish – meaning how mirror-like the surface is:
- Specified by Site Total Thickness Variation (TTV) in angstroms (Å)
- Lower angstrom level indicates flatter/smoother wafer surface
- Typical from 2-5Å for prime grade polished to 30Å for backside lapped
Surface flatness impacts:
- Photolithography resolution – critical for microchip fabrication
- Film depositions uniformity across the wafer
- Ability to resolve microscopic structures for inspection
- Bonding interfaces for layer transfer processes
We supply wafers across the range of surface finishes:
- Double side polished (DSP): Both sides of the wafer are polished to ultra-flatness, critical for photolithography and vacuum chucking
- Single side polished (SSP): One side polished while the other side etched or lapped, reducing cost
- Etched: Surface textured via wet/dry etching, used for silicon solar cell fabrication
- Lapped: Coarse surface finish from mechanical lapping, used for power devices not requiring fine lithography
Assess surface finish needed balanced with your budget for R&D test or production prime wafers.
Factor # 8
Notches or Flats
Wafers contain either notches or flats aligned to the crystalline orientation:
- Flats are straight edges cut from circle
- Notches are small V shaped marks around perimeter
Position indicates orientation, while notch vs flat itself has no impact on electrical properties.
However notches vs flats have implications for mechanical wafer handling:
- Flats preferred for vacuum systems – less leakage
- Notches make orientation easier to identify
- Our 200mm have notch per semiconductor industry standard
- Our 50.8-150mm options have flats
Browse our online catalog filtering on wafer size to see notch vs flat options. Or contact us to discuss your ideal mechanical wafer handling needs.
Factor # 9
Another consideration is the quantity of wafers needed which drives decisions like:
- Cost effectiveness – bulk packages offer reduced pricing
- Managing inventory flow over longer duration projects
- Budgeting for R&D stages before scaling to production volumes
We break quantity options into:
- Singlesfor 1-4 wafers – convenient for first tests
- Small packsof 5 or 10 for lots of small scale experiments
- Volume packages up to 50 wafersfor production pilot builds
- And bulk quantities 100+for large research or commercial fab lines
There is a MOQ of 25 wafers (full cassette) when you buy wafers online at WaferPro.
Price breaks are available for different quantities in product pages.
Contact us to request formal quotes if needing 500pcs+ quantity of specialized wafer types for your fab line.
Factor # 10
The final consideration is shipping and handling factors:
- Delivery time urgency
- International shipping logistics
- Wafer packing – hard vs soft packaging
- Shipping insurance
Key aspects of our wafer shipping:
- Fast handling within 24-48 hours of order completion
- Packed securely to prevent breakage
- Tracking info provided for all shipments
- International delivery to most global destinations
- Accept credit cards for convenient payment for online orders
- Accept Purchase Orders from companies and Universities
Review all WaferPro policies for shipping and payments before ordering to ensure alignment.
And don’t hesitate to contact our team with any wafer shipping questions to provide smooth ordering and delivery.